All-American Eggplant Parmesan Recipe
All-American Eggplant Parmesan Recipe

recipe image

Why It Works

  • Reducing the eggplant lengthwise minimizes the desire of slices, thereby streamlining the breading and frying activity.
  • Sandwiching eggplant slices between paper towels, weighing them down, and then heating them within the microwave purges their flesh of air and moisture, which in flip makes them fry up crisp and golden brown, with a dense, meaty inner.
  • Straight away blotting the fried eggplant with paper towels minimizes oil absorption.
  • Parmesan is added to the breading, sprinkled in between the layers, and dusted onto the dish after cooking for extra flavor.

Must you had asked the 14-one year-used me what my three least popular things within the sector were, I’d delight in answered “my sister*, She-Ra, and eggplant.”

*I is now now not going to allege which one, but who, Aya.

Nevertheless I’d delight in quite sat via a She-Ra marathon with my sister than be compelled to down a chew of the slimy, bitter stuff. Afterward down the line, I realized that it be now now not essentially eggplant itself that is contaminated, it used to be more honest that my mother did now not essentially know suggestions to put collectively dinner it (sorry, Mom), and she’s now now not the finest one.

Most of the ingredients in eggplant parmesan are tricky to debris up. And I’m now now not talking the mature Sicilian sort where un-breaded slices of eggplant are deep-fried in olive oil and delicately layered with tomatoes and mozzarella—I’m talking the all-American version. The kind where meaty slabs of eggplant web breaded and fried sooner than being layered in a casserole dish with a cooked tomato sauce loaded with mozzarella and parmesan cheese.

“The staunch bites of the dish are where the fried breading soaks up the candy tomato sauce”

The staunch bites of the dish are where the fried breading soaks up the candy tomato sauce and swells in between the layers of meaty eggplant and gooey cheese. At its righteous, eggplant parm is like a tastier, more comforting, and (marginally) more healthy version of lasagna Bolognese. (Hey—my wife advised me she desires to web more vegetables into our weight reduction program. Here’s my strive.)

Tomato sauce? No enviornment. Gooey mozzarella? I can web that. Breading and deep frying? Somewhat messy, but nothing overwhelming. Correctly cooking eggplant? No longer so easy. Even supposing you happen to manage to purge them successfully of their bitter liquid (now now not a chase wager!), they’re soundless so ethereal and spongy that they straight away rob in any and all oil. Cook dinner them too basic, and they flip to mush. Invent now now not put collectively dinner them enough, and they’re tricky with a tannic, astringent chew.

I chatted with Ed about this a diminutive, and I think he set apart it righteous:

“The object is, between eggplant parmesan and lasagna, you nearly consistently desire to secure the lasagna, because even at its worst, there’s finest so contaminated that meat, tomato sauce, cheese, and noodles would possibly well well even be. Nevertheless contaminated eggplant is inedible.”

And he is candy: With eggplants, it be all or nothing. It be time to up those odds.

The Speed to Purge: Eliminating Water for Higher Frying

Extreme Eats / J. Kenji López-Alt

“You delight in potentially heard that you would possibly well well show the “intercourse” of an eggplant by looking on the dimple on its backside”

You delight in potentially heard that you would possibly well well show the “intercourse” of an eggplant by looking on the dimple on its backside, and that male eggplants delight in fewer seeds than females. Whereas it be indubitably conceivable to expose the intercourse of particular things by examining their bottoms (like mandrills or crabs), eggplants are now now not one of them (essentially, eggplants assemble now now not if truth be told delight in a “intercourse”).

So how assemble you sight an eggplant with fewer seeds? The staunch ability is to examine their weight—the much less dense an eggplant is, the much less seedy this is also. Obviously, eggplants which are much less dense are more difficult to work with—they flip snug more without concerns, and rob in extra oil while cooking—which makes this advice completely impractical.

Here’s a better ability to assemble it: Correct set Italian eggplants. Italian eggplants are a ways much less seedy than their better American counterparts. They’re moreover denser, much less cumbersome to work with, and practically as widely obtainable.

Even with dense Italian eggplants, you proceed to must purge them because the first step to any recipe (fast of roasting them total, that is). Why?

To gift, I weighed out a 24-gram prick of eggplant sooner than placing it in a bowl of oil. Twenty minutes later, I weighed it again.

Extreme Eats / J. Kenji López-Alt

As you would possibly well well stare, it be absorbed 92.3% of its weight in oil! Must you delight in gotten ever tried sautéing uncooked eggplant, that they practically straight away rob in any oil within the pan, follow the backside, and burn. Adore a sponge, their cells are held collectively correct into a extraordinarily free community with quite a lot of air in between. Sooner than you would possibly well well even think about cooking them, it be crucial to resolve out a mode to exercise that air.

To search out the staunch ability, I attempted four heaps of suggestions:

  • Salting, resting, and pressing first gets rid of moisture via osmosis. Adore a leaky water balloon, because the moisture leaves the eggplant, its construction weakens, allowing you to in the end press out the extra air. This works comparatively successfully, but it requires quite a diminutive of strain, it be easy to over or below-salt the slices, and most frequently you would possibly well well very successfully be soundless left with uncompressed sections within the center of every prick, that methodology undercooked, astringent completed outcomes. It moreover takes upwards of an hour for eggplant slices to purge successfully. No thanks.
  • Steaming eggplant slices in a bamboo steamer will fast soften them to the point that you would possibly well well without concerns compress them. It moreover makes them soggy and snug. It be a strategy better fitted to eggplant that is going to be subsequently braised or mashed. Hotfoot.
  • Roasting eggplant slices uncovered is tricky to assemble. Cook dinner them dry, and they flip leathery and tricky. Try to oil them sooner than roasting, and the same outdated enviornment occurs: the oil gets straight away sucked in, and your eggplants soundless now stay wide awake leathery and tricky and greasy. Fail.
  • Roasting eggplant slices covered by a layer of paper towels in between two sheet pans is by a ways essentially the most righteous in-the-oven ability to assemble it. By lining a baking sheet with paper towels (or a tidy kitchen towel), placing the slices on top, covering them with one other layer of paper towel, then covering the total thing with one other baking sheet, the slices put collectively dinner evenly and the paper towel absorbs extra moisture while on the an identical time keeping them honest moist enough to defend from turning leathery. Now we delight in acquired a winner!

Roasting at 375°F (190°C) for about 30 minutes used to be the ability to scoot. Once the eggplant is totally cooked, you delight in gotten soundless acquired to press to expel that air.

Extreme Eats / J. Kenji López-Alt

It be a pleasant easy operation: I honest rob a tidy kitchen towel or paper towel (to present protection to my hand from scorching water vapor), and press down without extend on each eggplant prick unless it be entirely flat. The is a meaty, snug, and completely intact prick.

With a idea to streamline the formula even extra, I puzzled if I would possibly well well web the an identical imprint out of the microwave. I cannot fit a total sheet tray within the microwave, in list a substitute I placed a layer of eggplant slices sandwiched between paper towels on a tidy plate, placing a 2nd tidy plate on top. By stacking one other layer of eggplants and a third plate on top of that, I was in a position to suit a plump eggplant’s worth of slices within the microwave on the an identical time.

I zapped them for 3 minutes and checked the outcomes. Even better than within the oven.

“Porous and moist slices of eggplant are microwave gold, cooking evenly and fast.”

A microwave works by causing water molecules to fast flip . The consequent friction cooks your food. Microwaves can penetrate deeply into true matter basic faster than heat can (which is why microwaved meals put collectively dinner so basic faster), but in fashioned, the denser and thicker the food, the much less penetration a microwave will web. Dense, comparatively dry objects, like, allege, your sister’s My Cramped Pony dolls can rob a actually prolonged time to heat up (now now not that I do know via private abilities). On the heaps of hand, porous and moist slices of eggplant are microwave gold, cooking evenly and fast.

In below 10 minutes, I had all three eggplants I needed to beget my casserole dish completely purged, pressed, and prepared-to-bread.

Born to Bread: Bread the Eggplant

We’re up to segment two of eggplant parm, which for most of us, is the scariest. There is an irrational scare of frying, and I can never resolve out exactly what it’s.

Is it the mess? Must you would possibly well well very successfully be cautious, exercise the righteous instruments, and observe the righteous procedures, it be infrequently any mess the least bit—indubitably much less splatter than, allege, searing a steak. Is it a scare of fat? Effectively, that is a generous scare, I reveal, and one we are going to handle in a diminutive.

For me, essentially the most tense segment of breading meals is accidentally breading your fingers as you assemble it. Long-established breading is to dredge in flour, dip into beaten eggs, then coat with breadcrumbs. The flour helps the egg coat the food evenly (kinda like paint primer), which in flip lets the breadcrumbs stick. I’ve consistently heard the advice “Utilize one hand for dry and one hand for moist.”

Does any individual else delight in distress understanding exactly what this methodology? Correct by the character of breading, doesn’t one hand must switch things from one bowl to 1 other, thereby violating the dry-moist rule? Enact you scoot it between palms in between bowls?

To account for this matter, I asked Robyn to assemble a diminutive doodle:

Extreme Eats / Robyn Lee

Here’s what’s occurring on:

  1. The usage of your impartial correct hand, secure up a prick of eggplant and switch it to your bowl with flour. Scoop up some flour and toss it on top of the eggplant prick, tossing all the pieces around unless it be correctly covered.
  2. Silent the usage of your impartial correct hand, secure up the slices from the flour, shake’em a diminutive to web rid of the extra, and drop them into the egg bowl. This time, exercise your left hand to switch the eggplant slices around unless they’re successfully-covered.
  3. Silent the usage of your left hand, secure up the eggy slices, let’em drip a diminutive, then drop them into the bowl with the bread crumbs. Here’s the tricky segment: Must you now exercise your impartial correct hand to secure up the eggplant prick and flip it, you are going to web bread egg on it. Utilize your left hand, and likewise you now stay wide awake coating it in bread crumbs. Here’s the trick:  Utilize your impartial correct hand to secure up extra bread crumbs from around the eggplant and drop them on top. Fastidiously unfold them around unless you would possibly well well secure up the prick without egging your hand. Flip the eggplant, and repeat, pressing into the crumbs to coat the eggplant completely. It pays to delight in more bread crumbs than you wish within the bowl.
  4. Seize up the eggplant prick alongside with your impartial correct hand and switch it to a plate, ready to be fried.

Phew! By the ability, slicing eggplants lengthwise minimizes the desire of pieces it be a must to bread. Mixing it up with pieces lower crosswise and lengthwise permits you to originate fun wrathful eggplant faces.

Extreme Eats / J. Kenji López-Alt

Nevertheless that is neither right here nor there.

The Delusion About Frying: Fry at a Low Temperature

You on the total hear that fried meals rob in much less oil if you happen to be particular your oil is scorching enough sooner than you add the food to the pan. The reason is that the force of the water evaporating and expelling itself from within the food will defend the oil from coming into it. This makes a diminutive sense, but unfortunately, it be entirely spurious.

It is seemingly you’ll well also quite without concerns point to that essentially, the exact opposite is the case: The hotter your frying oil, the more oil your food will rob in.

I fried two batches of eggplant slices in oil at 375°F (190°C) and at 300°F (150°C), weighing the quantity of oil within the pan sooner than frying and on the dwell in list to gauge how basic used to be absorbed by the eggplant. The eggplant cooked in scorching oil absorbed about 14% more, though their total cooking time used to be very a lot shorter (I cooked each to the an identical colour of golden brown). Given an identical cooking times (via which length the scorching oil version used to be overcooked), it ended up absorbing nearly 20% more oil. Why is this?

You stare, as soon as the eggplant has been purged of air, there’s essentially now now not basic free rental left either within the eggplant itself, nor within the breading. In list for it to absorb any oil, rental must first be freed up. Where does that rental come from?

“The hotter the temperature, the more evaporation occurs, and the more home is left for oil to seep in.”

Evaporating water. As water converts to steam and bubbles out of the eggplant, oil seeps in to rob its put. The hotter the temperature, the more evaporation occurs, and the more home is left for oil to seep in. It is staunch that the force of the vapor leaving the food can defend one of the most oil out, however the 2nd you exercise the food from the scorching pot, that strain without extend drops and oil on the surface of the food fast gets sucked into the air areas within it.

Indubitably, about 70% of oil absorption in fried meals occurs impartial correct after you pull it out of the fryer (one of the most causes it be crucial to blot extra oil from fried meals as quickly because it comes out).

So does this imply you ought to fry meals at a lower temperature? Completely now now not. Here’s the entertaining thing: Even supposing food fried at a increased temperature has more grease in it, it indubitably tastes much less greasy. That’s for the reason that feeling of greasiness within the mouth has much less to assemble with the staunch quantity of grease on the food, and more to assemble with the combo of grease and liquid. Greasy is the feeling of soggy food with oil on it.

As a ways as indubitably cooking the slices scoot, I chanced on that shallow frying them in a big skillet used to be more straightforward, much less messy, and more straightforward to tidy up than indubitably deep frying them. I moreover extinct panko-sort crumbs which I seasoned myself—a ways more straightforward than making your possess, and heaps better than the sandy “Italian-sort” crumbs from the grocery store.

Extreme Eats / J. Kenji López-Alt

When all is declared and done, the spoiled-fragment of your eggplant slices ought to glimpse one thing like this: crisp and golden brown, with a dense, meaty, completely-cooked inner.


What’s that? You imply after I’ve done all that I soundless must originate sauce, grate cheese, assemble, and bake this sucker?

That’s impartial correct, young grasshopper: You gotta pay your dues if you happen to wanna converse the blues.

Luckily, I’ve already acquired a pleasant simply scheme down for making a killer tomato sauce. In accordance to a tidy segment off of Marcella Hazan’s easy tomato sauce recipe, the principal is to make exercise of a mixture of butter and olive oil, and so as to add onion flavor to the pot without ruining its texture by simmering a halved onion within the sauce while it reduces.

As a ways as cheese goes, I extinct a mixture of mozzarella and Parmigiano-Reggiano (which I added to the breading, sprinkled in between layers, and dusted on the closing dish after it came out of the oven—Di Fara sort—for a triple whammy or flavor).

Extreme Eats / J. Kenji López-Alt

Enjoyable Truth:  Even supposing the dish is named eggplant Parmigiana, it indubitably has nothing to assemble with Parma, the city in Emilia-Romagna that produces each Prosciutto di Parma, and Parmigiano-Reggiano. Counting on who you quiz, the title comes from either its exercise of parmesan cheese, or from the Sicilian phrase parmiciana, a reference to the shutter of a window, and how the eggplants overlap each heaps of like slats of wood. I’ll leave it to the Italians to fight over their etymology.

I’ve acquired more crucial things to assemble. Adore exercise more vegetables. Also, to resolve out a mode to make exercise of the phrase “egg-pants” on this fable. Any assist?

February 2011

All-American Eggplant Parmesan

  • 2 1/2 kilos Italian eggplant (about 3 or 4 medium), sliced into 1/2-scoot slices lengthwise

  • Kosher salt

  • 2 (28-ounce) cans total peeled tomatoes packed in juice

  • 1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil

  • 2 tablespoons butter

  • 6 cloves garlic, grated on a microplane grater

  • 4 teaspoons dried oregano

  • 1/2 teaspoon crimson pepper flakes

  • 1 tidy onion, peeled and split in half

  • 1/4 cup minced contemporary parsley leaves

  • 1/4 cup minced contemporary basil

  • 1 1/2 cups all-cause flour

  • 3 eggs, completely beaten

  • 6 oz. panko-sort bread crumbs

  • 4 oz. finely grated parmesan (about 2 cups)

  • 1 1/2 cups vegetable oil

  • 1 pound grated total milk mozzarella (about 4 cups)

  1. Season eggplant slices evenly on all sides with salt. Space a double layer of paper towels or tidy kitchen towel on a tidy plate and lay a single layer of eggplant slices on top. Top with 2 more layers paper towels or tidy kitchen towel. Top with 2nd tidy plate and put one other layer of paper towels and eggplant on top. Top with third tidy plate. Microwave on excessive vitality unless eggplant is without concerns compressed, about 3 minutes (be cautious, plates will be scorching). To put collectively eggplant in oven, stare notes.

    Extreme Eats / Qi Ai

  2. Working one fragment of eggplant at a time, press firmly between paper towels unless compressed. Build of living apart on a tidy tray. Repeat microwaving and pressing steps unless all eggplant slices are compressed.

    Extreme Eats / Qi Ai

  3. Purée tomatoes and their juice in a food mill, blender, or food processor unless no pieces better than 1/16th of an scoot dwell. Warmth olive oil and butter in a tidy saucepan over medium-excessive heat unless butter is melted. Add garlic, 2 teaspoons oregano, and pepper flakes and put collectively dinner, stirring consistently unless fragrant, about 2 minutes. Add tomatoes, onion, half of parsley, and half of basil, bring to a simmer, flip heat to low, and put collectively dinner unless lowered by half, about 1 hour. Lag in parsley and basil and season to taste with salt. Seize onion and discard. Build of living apart.

    Extreme Eats / Qi Ai

  4. Space flour in one broad mixing bowl, eggs and 1 teaspoon salt in 2nd broad mixing bowl, and breadcrumbs, last 2 teaspoons oregano, and 1/4 cup parmesan in third bowl. Working with one prick at a time, dredge eggplant in flour, dip in egg, and coat in seasoned bread crumbs. Transfer breaded eggplant to a rimmed baking sheet.

    Extreme Eats / Qi Ai

  5. Preheat oven to 375°F (190°C) and alter oven rack to heart put. Line tidy rimmed baking sheet with double layer of paper towels. In a 12-scoot nonstick or forged iron skillet, heat oil to 375°F. Fastidiously whisk 3-4 eggplant slices into scorching oil in a single layer. Cook dinner, shaking pan infrequently unless first facet is golden brown and crisp, about 2 1/2 minutes. The usage of tongs, fastidiously flip eggplant and proceed cooking, stirring infrequently unless 2nd facet is crisp, about 1 1/2 minutes longer. Transfer slices to paper-towel lined baking sheet and season without extend with salt. Repeat with last eggplant slices.

    Extreme Eats / Qi Ai

  6. In a 9- by 13-scoot glass baking dish, unfold 1/4 of tomato sauce over backside. Add 1/3 of eggplant slices in single layer (they would possibly well well simply overlap a diminutive bit). Press down to invent even layer. Add 1/4 of tomato sauce and unfold evenly. Evenly unfold 1/3 of mozzarella and 1/3 of last parmesan over sauce. Repeat with 2 more layers each of eggplant, sauce, and cheese, reserving 1/4 cup of parmesan on the dwell.

    Extreme Eats / Qi Ai

  7. Duvet with foil and bake for 20 minutes. Seize foil and bake unless light golden brown and bubbly on surface, about 20 minutes longer. Sprinkle with last 1/4 cup parmesan and assist without extend.

    Extreme Eats / Qi Ai

Special Equipment

Substantial nonstick or forged iron skillet, 9- by 13-scoot baking dish, microwave (non-compulsory)


To purge eggplant without the usage of microwave, preheat the oven to 375°F (190°C). Line a rimmed baking sheet with a double layer of paper towels. Shingle the eggplant slices on top of the towels and top with one other double layer of paper towels. Space a 2nd rimmed baking sheet on top. Bake unless eggplant slices are without concerns compressed, about 30 minutes. Seize from oven. Working one prick at a time, press between paper towels unless compressed. Continue with step 3.

Read More

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